Cardan Shafts Selection

According as standard JB5513-91, use the following methods to select SWC-Ⅰseries and SWC series universal joint shafts. Please consult us for selecting other product series.

1.Universal joint shafts are selected according to the load features, calculated torques,bearing life, and operating speed.
2.The calculated torque is acquired from Formulas (1)、 (2) or (1)、(3):

Where: Tc = Calculated torque, N·m;
T = Theoretic torque, N ·m;
Pw = Driving power, kW;
PH = Driving power, hp;
n = Operating speed, rpm;
K = Service factors (See Table 10)

Service Factors K

Service Factor
Driven Equipment K
Light shock load Generators Centrifugal pumps Ventilators
Wood handling machines Belt conveyers
Medium shock load Compressors (multi-cyl.) Pumps (multi-cyl.)
Small section mills Continuous wire mills Conveyer primary drives
Heavy shock load Marine transmissions Transport roller tables Continuous tube mills
Continuous working roller tables Medium section mills Compressors (single-cyl.) Pumps (single-cyl.)
Mixers Presses
Straightening machines Crane drives
Ball mills
Extra heavy shock load Paper machines
Crane accessory drives Crushers
Reversing working roller tables Reeling drives
Scale breakers Blooming stands
Extreme shock load Feed roller drives Plate shears 6~15

3.Generally, universal joint shafts are selected according to the torque to be transmitted and the required bearing life. They can also be selected by checking their torque strengths or bearing life with relation to the requirements of the applicable equipment.
3.1 Checking the torsional strength using Formula (4), Tc ≤ Tn or Tc ≤ Tf or Tc ≤ TP ................ (4)
Tc = Calculated torque, N·m
Tn = Nominal torque, N·m (i.e., a theoretically calculated value under these pre-determined conditions: speed of shaft n≈10 rpm, deflection angle β = 3°, and a bearing life
LN = 5000 hours under even Icad).
Tf = Permissible torque according to the fatigue strength under alternating loads, N·m
TP = Permissible torque according to the fatigue strength under pulsating loads, N·m

3.2 Checking the bearing life Using Formula (5)

LN = Service life, hrs;
n = Operating speed, rpm;
β= Joint operating angle in operation, (°);
K1 = Prime motor factor
Electric motor: K1 = 1
Diesel generator: K1 = 1.2
KL = Bearing capacity factor (See Table 11);
Lmin = Min. bearing life, hrs;
T = Theoretic torque,kN·m

Bearing Capacity Factor









SWC-Ⅰ58 0.022×10-5 SWC160 0.16 SWC440 8.25×103 SWCL225 9.79
SWC-Ⅰ65 0.012×10-4 SWC180 0.51 SWC490 2.145×104 SWCL250 34.7
SWC-Ⅰ75 0.058×10-4 SWC200 1.47 SWC550 6.335×104 SWCL285


SWC-Ⅰ90 0.048×10-3 SWC225 7.812 SWC620 0.13×106 SWCL315


SWC-Ⅰ100 0.26×10-3 SWC250 28.2 SWCZ700 0.32×106 SWCL350


SWC-Ⅰ120 0.26×10-2 SWC265 54.8 SWCZ750 0.75×106 SWCL390 2323
SWC-Ⅰ150 2.65×10-2 SWC285 82.8 SWCZ800 1.06×106
SWC-Ⅰ180 3.60×10-2 SWC315 279 SWCZ900 5.62×106


SWC350 744 SWCZ1060 30.3×106


SWC390 1860

4.When there are simultaneous horizontal andvertical angular misalignments on the universal jointshaft,the composite deflection angle is calculated using Formula (6):

Where,β= Composite deflection angle,(°);
β1= Horizontal deflection angle,(°);
β2= Vertical deflection angle,(°).

5.If the joint diameter of the shaft is 390mm or less,Formulas (7) and (8) should be used to check the maximum speed in addition to the considerations of torque and bearing life.

Where,nmax = Maximum operating speed,rpm;
[nβ] = Maximum permissible speed in relation to operating deflection angle,rpm.(See Figure 7-1)
[nL] = Maximum permissible speed in relation to operating length, rpm.(See Figure 7-2)

6.If the line speed of the shaft is over 7m/s, dynamic balancing test is requested, normally to a balancing accuracy between G16~G40. There are complex variables which effects the balancing grade. The customer's verification should be in a lower rank.

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